Related Literature & Study

Related Literature & Study
A serene and spiritual scene capturing the essence of Buddhism in Nepal. Imagine a tranquil monastery nestled among the lush greenery of the Himalayan

Numerous contributions of different  scholars  have  helped  to prepare this  thesis  Buddhism  in  Nepal  .  Their  works  which  I  mainly used in this  study  are  mentioned.  1.“Spurious  Asokan  Records”  by  Harry Falk  and  2.Ashoka’s  Edicts  by  Amulyachandra  Sena,  3.Sanchi Stupa by Sir John Marshall and Alfred Foucher are the most  notable reference in  preparing  Buddhists  in  Asokan  Period.  4.Licchavikalaka Abhilekha (Inscriptions of Licchavi Period) by Dhanavajra  Vajracarya  was the major source  for  History  of  Licchavi  Period.  5.“On  the Antiquity of Nepalese Metlcraft”  by  Marry  Shephered  Slusser  also gives  some  interesting    information   on  Buddhism  in  Licchavi  period. For mediaeval history an essay by Dhanavajra  Vajracarya published in 6.’Karnali Ancalako Eka Bito Adhyayana’ helped sufficiently. The topic Newar Buddhism is  mainly  based  on  7.Buddhist  Monasteries  of  Nepal by  John   K.  Lock.  Information   of  Litarature   of   Newar   Buddhism  is taken from  the work of  Brain H. Hodgson 8.Essays on the languages, Literature, and Religion of Nepal and Tibet. 9. A couples of contributions by Todd T. Luwish on Newar and Tibetan Buddhism;.”Newar-Tibetan Trade and the Domestication of Simhalasarthabahu Avadana”, and “Newars and Tibetans in the Kathmandu Valley: Ethnic Boundaries and Religious History”,  10.Monuments of Northern Nepal by Corneille Jest; 11. The Renaissance of Tibetan Civilization by Christoph von Furer-Haimendorf and 12. A Short History of Buddhism in Nepal. 13. A research work by Nvan Vosher lama, 1985, sponsored by Center for Nepal and Asian Studies (CNAS) gives government census of Gonpas in the country and enhances understanding on Tibetan Mahayana Buddhism in Nepal. For correction misunderstandings on Lamaism, red and yellow caps sects, work of Stephen Batchelor 14.The Tibet Guide  (1987)  was  my  guide.  In the same way I depended on 15.Buddhism and  Lamaism  of  Tibet  by Austin  Waddell  reprinted  in  1955  for  understanding  the  different schools  of  Tibetan Buddhism.

A few of writings on Theravada Buddhism in Nepal are noted. Presence of Theravada monks and nuns in Nepal is noted by  the foreigners.  Theravada Bhikkhus in 1980 had been well received by the Newar community but they also had not broken with their Vajrayana tradition.   Devid N. Gellner sees that Theravada has become a major challenge   to   traditional    Newar    Buddhism    as   it   has   replaced the Vajracarya  priests  by  performing  ceremonies  for   a   considerable number of lay-followers.  There are three pieces of work relating to Theravada Buddhism  in  Nepal  which  are  quite  important  to  understand the past events and situations. A considerably detailed  account  of Theravada Buddhism in Nepal was produced by Ria Kloppenborg after having made several visits to Nepal in 1973.  It  gives  an  outline of the main historical  events  in  the  development  of  the  movement  especially the efforts of the Buddhist organizations. It  gives  a  description  of  the history and the  contemporary  status  of  the  matter  along  with  some aspects and their consequence to Theravada Buddhism in Nepal. ,  In Tewari’s  study  we  find  information  concerning  the   background   of monks and nuns from  the  various  Newar castes  together  with percentages based on observations from the year 1978 to 1982. In Heinz Bechert Jens-Uwe Hartsmann, give Observations on  the  Reform  of Buddhism  in  Nepal  depicting  the   introduction   and   historical development along with the structure of  contemporary  activities  of Theravada  Buddhism  in  Nepal.  (1986).

There are also some Nepalese who have written about Theravada activities in Nepal. Among them Venerable Amritananda who was the first to have written a small booklet A Short HistoryofTheravada Buddhism in Nepal. His work covers the main Theravada events and activities  in his lifetime.

Sahisainika Itihasa  by  Somadhoja  Vista,  Gopala Rajavamsavali by Dhanavajra  Vajracarya  and  Kamala  P. Malla, Modern Nepal  ,Vol. 1, by D. R. Regmi,  Nationalities  Question in Nepal  by Sitaram Tamang are the sources used to comprehend the secular history of the country. There are many other works which are helpful to enhance the understanding the matter. A complete list of these works is given in bibliography.


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